As artificial intelligence (AI) systems become increasingly prevalent in our daily lives, it is crucial to consider the cultural, social, and ethical implications of these technologies. Anthropology, with its holistic approach to studying human societies and cultures, offers valuable insights that can inform the development and deployment of AI. Simultaneously, AI presents new opportunities and challenges for anthropological research and practice. In this blog post, I will explore a framework for conceptualizing the interrelationships between anthropology and AI, focusing on three key orientations: anthropology of AI, anthropology for AI, and AI with anthropology.

Anthropology of AI:

Anthropology has an important role to play in studying AI as a cultural artifact and situated technology. By examining how AI systems are conceptualized, designed, marketed, regulated, and adopted (or resisted) in different cultural contexts, anthropologists can shed light on the complex social, political, and economic factors that shape the development and deployment of these technologies.

Ethnographic studies of AI can explore questions such as: How do different cultural values and beliefs influence the way AI is perceived and used in different societies? What are the power dynamics and inequalities that are embedded in or amplified by AI systems? How do people negotiate their relationships with AI technologies, and what new forms of sociality and identity emerge in the process?

By critically engaging with these questions, anthropologists can contribute to public discourse and policy debates around AI, helping to ensure that these technologies are developed and deployed in a way that benefits society as a whole.

Anthropology for AI

Anthropology also has much to offer regarding the design and development of AI systems. By applying anthropological knowledge and methods, we can ensure that AI is culturally sensitive, ethically grounded, and aligned with human values. Ethnographic research can provide deep insights into the diverse ways in which people interact with and make sense of technology in their everyday lives. These insights can be used to create AI systems that are more intuitive, user-friendly, and adaptable to different cultural contexts.

Moreover, anthropological theories of human cognition, communication, and social behavior can contribute to the development of AI systems that exhibit greater social intelligence and contextual awareness. For example, by drawing on anthropological models of common sense reasoning and social norms, AI researchers can create systems that can more effectively navigate complex social situations and engage in natural, culturally appropriate interactions with humans.

AI with Anthropology:

Finally, the framework of AI with anthropology highlights the potential for collaborative partnerships between the two fields. By working together, anthropologists and AI researchers can leverage their complementary skills and knowledge to tackle complex problems and generate new insights.

For example, anthropologists can use AI as a research tool to analyze large datasets, identify patterns, and generate new insights. AI can also assist with tasks such as coding and analyzing ethnographic data, modeling cultural evolution and dynamics, and simulating social interactions. At the same time, anthropologists can provide cultural expertise and ethical guidance to ensure that AI systems are developed and used responsibly and culturally appropriately.

Collaborative human-AI teams can also engage in joint research projects, combining computational capabilities with anthropological perspectives to study complex social phenomena. For instance, an AI model could be trained on ethnographic data to generate insights into cultural practices and beliefs, which could then be interpreted and contextualized by anthropologists.


The relationship between anthropology and AI is multifaceted and mutually beneficial. By engaging with AI through the three orientations – of, for, and with -, anthropologists can contribute to the development of more culturally sensitive and ethically grounded AI systems while also enriching their own research and practice through the judicious incorporation of computational techniques and perspectives. As we navigate the complex landscape of AI, it is essential that we foster constructive dialogue and collaboration between anthropology and AI, working together to build a future in which these technologies benefit all of humanity.